Congratulations to everyone involved!
Military Intelligence Day is a professional military holiday in Russia, established by order of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation No. 490 dated October 12, 2000 and celebrated on November 5 in accordance with Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 549 dated May 31, 2006 “On the establishment of professional holidays and memorable days in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.” Federation.”
On this day in 1918 in Petrograd, as part of the Field Headquarters of the Red Army, the Registration Directorate was formed to coordinate the efforts of all intelligence agencies of the army, which became the prototype of the current central military intelligence management body – the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. Currently, the official name is the Main Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
The intelligence profession is considered one of the oldest on earth. Even during the times of Kievan Rus, intelligence was a matter of national importance. Ambassadors, messengers, merchants, residents of border areas and military detachments were involved in collecting data.
Later, already under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, in 1654 the Order of Secret Affairs was founded – the prototype of the intelligence department of that time. In the Military Regulations of 1716, Peter I provided a legislative and legal basis for intelligence work. During the reign of Emperor Alexander I in January 1810, on the initiative of Barclay de Tolly, the so-called secret affairs expedition was created under the Ministry of War; in January 1812 it was renamed the Special Chancellery under the Minister of War.
The special office solved the most important tasks: conducting strategic intelligence (collecting strategically important secret information abroad), operational-tactical intelligence (collecting data about enemy troops on the borders of Russia) and counterintelligence (identifying and neutralizing enemy agents). It became the first central body of the Military Ministry of the Russian Empire, which was engaged in organizing intelligence of the armed forces of foreign states.
Military intelligence traces its modern history back to 1918.
On November 1, 1918, the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic (RVSR) approved the staff of the Field Headquarters of the RVSR. And on November 5, the state was introduced by order of the RVSR. The structure of the Field Headquarters included the Registration Directorate (Registrupr), which for the first time united all the military intelligence agencies that existed at that time. The Register consisted of two departments: intelligence (intelligence) and military control (counterintelligence). Semyon Aralov, a Bolshevik from among the Russian army intelligence veterans of the First World War, was appointed the first head of the Register.
In November 1918, intelligence and military control courses were opened in Moscow, which taught 13 disciplines, including geography, artillery, tactics, topography, human intelligence, counterintelligence, etc. A little later, elementary study of foreign languages (French, German, English, Japanese, Swedish, Finnish).
Since April 1921, the Register was transformed into the Intelligence Directorate (Razvedupr) of the headquarters of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army (RKKA), and, according to the “Regulations,” became “the central body of military intelligence, both in war and in peacetime.” Since 1926, the Intelligence Department became known as the IV Directorate of the Red Army Headquarters.
With the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, supporting the combat operations of troops and the operations they carried out was the main type of intelligence activity. During the war, the work of intelligence officers operating behind the front line in temporarily occupied territories and in other countries was noted to be of great scope and effectiveness. From the first days of the war, reconnaissance and reconnaissance and sabotage groups were deployed behind enemy lines, on the basis of which partisan detachments were subsequently deployed in many areas, and a reserve reconnaissance network was created in the territory forcedly abandoned to the enemy. The preparation and conduct of all strategic, front-line and army operations were based on strategic and operational intelligence data.
In February 1942, the Intelligence Directorate was reorganized into the Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU). In October 1942, the GRU was separated from the General Staff and subordinated directly to the People’s Commissar of Defense, and its task was to conduct all human intelligence of enemy armies abroad and in temporarily occupied territories. In April 1943, along with the GRU, the intelligence department of the General Staff of the Red Army was formed with the tasks of leading military and human intelligence intelligence of the fronts, providing regular information about the actions and intentions of the enemy and conducting disinformation of the enemy.
After the war, they united into the GRU of the General Staff, which in 1947 became known as the Second Main Directorate of the Information Committee under the Council of Ministers of the USSR, and since 1949 – again as the GRU of the General Staff of the Armed Forces.
Over the past time, the role of military intelligence has increased many times. Today it is the most important component of strengthening the state. Military intelligence, as an element of the state’s national security system, obtains, analyzes, and summarizes information about the military-political situation that is developing around Russia, predicts its development, and promptly reports to the highest political leadership of the Russian Federation and the command of the Armed Forces about real and potential threats to the national interests and security of the country.
The sphere of interests of military intelligence includes regional and local armed conflicts, the armed forces of foreign states, their equipment and weapons, equipment for possible theaters of military operations, as well as the economy involved in the interests of the armed forces.
Depending on the scale of the tasks being solved and the purpose, it is divided into strategic, operational and tactical. By type, military intelligence is divided: by area of action – into ground, air, sea and space reconnaissance; according to the nature of the tasks being solved and the purpose – for intelligence, special, radio and radio technical, military reconnaissance, artillery, engineering reconnaissance, radiation, chemical and biological reconnaissance, topographical, hydrographic, hydrometeorological, technical reconnaissance, logistics; based on the technical means of reconnaissance used – radio-electronic, optical-electronic, optical, sound, etc.
Military intelligence includes both operational and technical units, as well as information, analytical and support structures. They are equipped with the most modern technical reconnaissance equipment, created on the basis of the latest achievements in the field of information, telecommunications and space technologies.
For the courage and heroism shown in carrying out special tasks to ensure national security, more than 700 military intelligence officers were awarded the high titles of Heroes of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.
We wish you good health with all our hearts.
May luck accompany you every step of the way. Let comfort and love reign in your families!